4-13 WISH CLAUSES
"Wish" in sözcük anlamı "istemek, dilemek' tir. Bu açıdan "want' ve "would like" ile aynı anlamı taşır. Ancak "wish" bunların içinde daha çok resmi ortamlarda kullanılanıdır. "Wish" ten sonra bir başka fiile geçebiliriz.
Who do you wish to see, Sir? (wish to do something) I wish to see the manager.
The Prime Minister wished the Opposition to be more reasonable about the new tax system, (wish someone to do something)
"Wish" ten sonra bir isim gelebilir. Ancak "wish" in bu kullanımı kısıtlıdır. "Want" ve "would like" tan sonra herhangi bir ismi kullanabiliriz. "/ want/would like some coffee. I want/would like a ticket to Ankara" gibi. "Wish"i ise, ancak "şans, mutluluk, başarı dilemek" gibi yapılarda kullanabiliriz.
Wish me luck in the exam, (wish someone something)
I wish you a swift recovery.
I sent a card to my parents and wished them a Happy New Year.
"Wish" ten sonra bir cümle (that clause) gelebilir. Bu cümlenin tense'i, present ya da future tense olamaz. Mutlaka gerçek durumu ifade eden cümledeki tense'in bir derece past biçimi olmalıdır: do yerine did, can yerine could, did ve have/has done yerine had done gibi. ("Want" ve "would like" tan sonra bu şekilde cümle gelmez.)
She Isn't here now. I wish she were here now. (Keşke o şimdi burada olsaydı.)
We don't have enough money. I wish we had enough money. (Keşke yeterince paramız olsaydı.)
l can't help her. I wish I could help her. (Keşke ona yardım edebilseydim.)
b) WISH CLAUSES
1. A wish about the present
"Wish + subject + past tense", kişinin, içinde bulunduğu anda hoşuna gitmeyen olayları, memnuniyetsizliğini ifade eder. "Be" fiili için bütün öznelerle "were" kullanılır. "Wish" ten sonra "that" kullanabiliriz. Ancak that kullanmadan cümleye geçmek daha yaygındır.
Ali isn't as tall as his friend Ahmet.
Ali wishes (that) he were as tall as his friend Ahmet.
(Ali is sorry that he isn't as tall as his friend Ahmet.)
I am very busy now, so I can't help you.
I wish I weren't so busy now.
(It's a pity that I'm very busy now.)
I don't know where he is, so I can't contact him.
I wish I .knew where he was.
(It's a pity that I don't know where he is.)
She doesn't trust me. I wish she trusted me.
I have to stay home today. I wish I didn't have to stay home today.
I can't do anything to relieve the situation.
I wish I could do something to relieve the situation.
He is working now. I wish he weren't working now.
It's raining heavily, so I can't go out. I wish it weren't raining so heavily.
2. A wish about the past
"Wish + subject + past perfect", geçmişte gerçekleşmiş olan olaylardan duyulan pişmanlığı ya da o olaylardan dolayı yakınmayı ifade etmek için kullanılır.
He wasn't here yesterday, so he missed the party.
I wish he had been here yesterday.
I had to work yesterday, so I couldn't go to the theatre with them.
I wish I hadn't had to work yesterday.
I couldn't get up early yesterday, so I was late for my date.
I wish I could have got up/had been able to get up early yesterday.
I didn't have enough money on me, so I couldn't lend him any.
I wish I had had enough money on me.
I was driving very fast at the time of the accident, so the person I hit got seriously injured.
I wish I hadn't been driving so fast at the time of the accident.
OR I wish I had been driving more slowly at the time of the accident.
3. A wish about the future
Wish clause'larda "would" un kullanımı belli kurallara bağlıdır.
Temel cümle ile (I wish, she wishes, etc.) yan cümlenin özneleri aynı ise, temel cümlede
"would" kullanamayız. Çünkü "would", içinde bulunduğumuz anda ya da gelecekte memnun olmadığımız ya da hoşumuza gitmeyen bir olayı bir başkasının değiştirmesini istediğimiz anlamını ifade eder. Bu nedenle, iki cümlenin özneleri farklı olduğu zaman
(I wish you would .... She wishes they would...) "would" kullanabiliriz.
I'm sure it will be a wonderful picnic.
I wish you would come too. (I want you to come.)
You are driving too fast.
J wish you would slow down. (I want you to slow down.)
She is thinking about studying abroad, but I don't want to be away from her.
J wish she would change her mind. (/ want her to change her mind.)
It's raining heavily, and I don't want to go out in the rain.
I wish it would stop raining. (I want the rain to stop.)
Eğer geleceğe yönelik bir ifade kullanmak istiyorsak ama iki cümledeki özneler aynı ise "could" ya da simple past tense kullanabiliriz.
I have to work tomorrow.
I wish I didn't have to work tomorrow.
She can't come with us tomorrow, and she is disappointed about this.
She wishes she could come with us tomorrow.
I don't think I will have spare time tomorrow to help you, but 1 wish I cou/d help you.
c) IF ONLY
"If only" de "I wish" ile aynı anlamdadır ve aynı tense kurallarına göre kullanılır. Ancak "if only" biraz daha dramatik (daha üzücü) olayları ifade ederken kullanılır.
If only he hadn't been so seriously injured!
If onfy I knew where she was living now!
If only we could do something to deaden her pain!
If onfy you would drive more slowly!
"If only" run bağlı bulunduğu cümle bir temel cümleye doğrudan bağlanabilir. Bu kullanım,
"then/in that case" gibi, bir geçiş sözcüğü olmadan "I wish" için mümkün değildir. ••
If only I had known that you were in the hospital, I would have come to visit
If only you would drive more slowly, I would feel more relaxed.
(/ wish you wou/d drive more slowly; then/that way, I would feel more relaxed.)
If only I knew where she was living now, I could write to her.
(I wish I knew where she was living now. Then, I could write to her.)
"If only" kalıbında, "if ile "only" ayrılabilir ve "only" cümle içinde farklı yerlerde kullanılabilir.
1. "Be" fiilinden sonra:
If only he were more hard-working! Zfhe were onfyrnore hard-working!
2. "Modal" yardımcı fiillerinden sonra:
Ifonfyyou would drive more slowly! Zf you would only drive more slowly!
If only we could do something to deaden her pain! Zf we could onfy do something to deaden her pain!
3. Asıl fiilden önce:
If only 1 knew where she was living now! Zf I only knew where she was living now!
4. Active cümlede "had/hadn't" dan önce ya da sonra:
If only I had known that you were in the hospital, I would have come to visit you. Zf I had only known that you were in the hospital, I would have come to visit you. Zf I onfy had known that you were in the hospital, I would have come to visit you.
5. Passive cümlede "had/hadn't" dan önce:
If onfy he hadn't been so seriously injured! Zf he onfy hadn't been so seriously injured!
d) WOULD RATHER
"Would rather" kullanarak "I wish" ile aynı anlamı veren cümleler elde edebiliriz. Bu anlamda "would rather", yaygın olarak özellikle konuşmacı ile yan cümledeki özne farklı kişilerse kullanılır.
I'd rather you were by my side at this difficult moment, (wish about the present) I wish you were by my side at this difficult moment.
I'd rather he didn't come to the party next weekend, (wish about the future) I wish he wouldn't come to the party next weekend.
I'd rather we hadn't stayed out so late last night, (wish about the past) I wish we hadn't stayed out so late last night.
e) ITS (HIGH) TIME/ITS ABOUT TIME
"It's (high) time/it's about time", "... yapmanın zamanı çoktan geldi/...yapmanın zamanı geldi de geçti bile" gibi anlamlar verdiği için, bu kalıplan kullanarak "I wish" ile aynı anlamda cümleler üretebiliriz. Çünkü, "....yapmanın zamanı çoktan geldi." ve "Keşke artık ...yapsan." ifadelerinin her ikisi de, bir yakınma, bir dilekte bulunma ifade etmektedir.
"It's (high) time/It's about time" dan sonra gelen cümlede sadece Simple past kullanılır ve present ya da future bir dilek ya da istek ifade edilir. Geçmişteki bir dilek ya da isteği bu yapılarla ifade edemeyiz. "Bir şeyin olmasının zamanı çoktan geldi." anlamından dolayı, bu kalıplarla olumsuz yapı kullanmak da mümkün değildir.
It's (high) time she learnt how to take care of herself.
I wish she would learn how to take care of herself.
It's about time someone taught you a lesson. I wish someone would teach you a lesson.
It's about time you could ride a bike. I wish you could ride a bike.
"It's time (for someone) to do something", "...yapma zamanı geldi" anlamını verir ve "it's (high) time/it's about time" gibi, bir gecikme ya da yakınma ifade etmez.
I've had a lovely time tonight, but it's time (for me) to go. (
The time has now arrived for me to go.) (..., ama artık gitme zamanı geldi.)
I've had a lovely time tonight, but it's (high) time I went (I should probably have left before this.) (..., ama çoktan gitmiş olmalıydım.)